Ruiz-Tagle, J., & Romano, S. (2019). Mezcla social e integración urbana: aproximaciones teóricas y discusión del caso chileno. Revista INVI, 34(95), 45-69. Como citar este artículo

Mezcla social e integración urbana: aproximaciones teóricas y discusión del caso chileno

Javier Ruiz-Tagle, Scarlet Romano

Resumen


La mezcla social, en términos generales, denota la diversidad social de un área geográfica determinada, sea esta económica, racial, étnica, cultural, etc. La mezcla social es un viejo y persistente ideal de planificación (marcada por pretensiones normativas), ha sido lograda a través de diferentes medios, ha sido propuesta para lograr una amplia variedad de objetivos, y ha sido usada intercambiablemente para referirse a conceptos como ‘integración’, ‘comunidades de ingresos diversos’, ‘desconcentración de la pobreza’, ‘comunidades balanceadas’, etc. Ha habido abundante literatura desde los años 90, a tal punto que es uno de las materias más estudiadas en los estudios urbanos. En la actualidad, la discusión sobre mezcla social gira alrededor de cinco conceptos claves: hipótesis del contacto, redes sociales, control social, modelos de rol y geografías de la oportunidad. En Chile, desde el año 2006 ha habido políticas de mezcla social, con la expectativa de que la proximidad física entre diferentes grupos sociales podría facilitar la integración. En este artículo revisamos el concepto de mezcla social desde una perspectiva histórica y comparativa, y luego estudiamos las políticas chilenas bajo los cinco conceptos mencionados, mostrando la poca eficacia que han tenido los proyectos de integración en cumplir los objetivos propuestos.

Palabras clave


mezcla social; integración social; planificación urbana; políticas públicas

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Referencias


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